Dating antique horseshoes
Nor is it possible to allocate specific dates to a pipe by reason of its design or shape.The manufacture of clayware field drains was mostly a matter for the local or estate brickyards and developments and improvements occurred locally rather than nationally.The Diamond Calk Horseshoe Company was founded in 1908 by Otto Swanstrom, a blacksmith operating in Duluth, Minnesota.As the name suggests, the company was formed to make calks and horseshoes, and their initial product was a patented insertable calk for horseshoes.The horseshoe case shown below is an earlier example, probably dating from the beginning of the twentieth century.The spare horseshoe case was only one very small piece of equipment carried by mounted troops.In 1826 after a great deal of protest and pressure, field drains were exempted from tax provided they had the word ‘drain’ impressed. The old stone filled trenches obviously tended to become overloaded in periods of heavy rain particularly when the drains were becoming old, and the first development was to copy the old bush drains and create an open space below the stones at the bottom of the trench through which the water could flow more freely.
Today, the market for bitters bottles is strong, especially for rare examples.
Inside there is the pocket for the horseshoe and a small section for spare nails. Under the flap it is stamped again “60″ with another ordnance mark.
On its outside there is a leather loop or sword frog.
Drain tiles, either cylindrical or oval in section, made of hard burnt clay are now (1942) almost universally employed for field drainage (p41) - When drains are to be excavated by hand, a cord is stretched on the ground to mark the true line of the trench, along which the drainer works his shovels and ditching spades.
The top of the excavation need not be more than 12 -14 inches wide, and the trench is narrowed to the breadth of the tile at the bottom.
The only approach to possible dating of pipes are those stamped with the word ‘DRAIN’.